Fluid Geography, Page 135 
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FLUID GEOGRAPHY 135 but also in its planar projection into the sections of the comprehensive map. Because the enclosing border scale cannot be elongated, distorted or contracted and represents a great circle bent flat into a onedimension line, the adjustment of the contained spherical surface segment to a plane surface segment must be satisfied by interior contraction of the data instead of by exterior stretching, as in all other methods of projection. Because of this feature, the several pieces, of course, fit neatly together, being the mutual sides of adjacent polygons and being separated by the same great circle or straight line. Because the area of a circle increases as the square of its radius, the same error outwardly disposed must be distorted to four times greater extent than by inward disposition. The segmentation of the earth's surface into eight triangles and six squares is not in any sense a matter of esthetic choice. It represents the only subdivision possible by means of this universal projection viewpoint, for the radial and chordal lengths must be identical in order to allow this symmetrically hinged opening of the sphere. Having six axes and four dimensions, its parts may be rearranged to continuously unpeel the globe in all directions. Gnomonic projections through the surface facets of any of the regular polyhedrons will serve to provide a variety of sectional world surface maps. Striking an optimum between angular contraction and numbers and sizes of pieces, an icosahedron is the least distorted, for these projection purposes, of any of the regular solids. However, the spherical vertexes of the icosahedron's twenty triangles must be reduced from 72° to plane triangular vertexes of 60° , a reduction of twenty per cent, which percentage times the number of pieces, gives the total distortion. On the other hand, the Dymaxion's fourteen pieces accomplish translation with a distortion of only sixteen per cent, the Dymaxion's spherical triangles being only 70° and the vertexes of the square bearing the same percentage relationship between the spherical and the plane figure. The Dymaxion projection method of transferring spherical data to the plane surface is extremely simple. Because of its universal viewpoint, it need deal only with the surface of the sphere and the plane surface of the map. A lattice of four great circles is formed about the sphere, each intersecting the other in such a manner as to subdivide each circle into six symmetrical arcs of 6oo. This lattice provides fourteen spherical surface areas, eight of them triangular, six of them quadrangular. These spherical triangles and squares are equilateraL The surfaces of these
Object Description
Title  Volume IV. No. 2 April 1944 
Description  Articles include: Historical Notes on the Gilbert and Marshall Islands by Samuel Eliot Morison; Fluid Geography by Richard Buckminster Fuller; The First American Steam Passenger Line to South America by Francis O. Braynard; and The Polly of Amesbury by john R. Herbert. Notes and Book Reviews are also included. 
Date  1944, April 
Subjects  Braynard, Frank O. (Frank Osborn), 19162007; East India Company; Fuller projection (Cartography); Fuller, R. Buckminster, (Richard Buckminster), 18951983; Gilbert Islands; Handy, Samuel Clarke, Captain; Herbert, John R.; Mail steamers; Marshall Islands; Maury, Matthew Fontaine, 18491886; Mercator projection (Cartography); Merchant ships – History; Morison, Samuel Eliot, 18871976; Polly (Sloop); Stevenson, Robert Louis, 18501894; United States and Brazil Mail Steamship Company; Upton, Jeduthun, Captain 
Publisher  Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts 
Sponsor  This digitization project was sponsored by the Salem Marine Society. 
Format  A Quarterly Journal of Maritime History and Arts 
Publication Rights  Requests for permission to publish material from this collection must be submitted in writing to The Russell W. Knight Curator of Maritime Art and History at the Peabody Essex Museum. 
Description
Title  Fluid Geography, Page 135 
Author  Richard Buckminster Fuller 
Description  FLUID GEOGRAPHY 135 but also in its planar projection into the sections of the comprehensive map. Because the enclosing border scale cannot be elongated, distorted or contracted and represents a great circle bent flat into a onedimension line, the adjustment of the contained spherical surface segment to a plane surface segment must be satisfied by interior contraction of the data instead of by exterior stretching, as in all other methods of projection. Because of this feature, the several pieces, of course, fit neatly together, being the mutual sides of adjacent polygons and being separated by the same great circle or straight line. Because the area of a circle increases as the square of its radius, the same error outwardly disposed must be distorted to four times greater extent than by inward disposition. The segmentation of the earth's surface into eight triangles and six squares is not in any sense a matter of esthetic choice. It represents the only subdivision possible by means of this universal projection viewpoint, for the radial and chordal lengths must be identical in order to allow this symmetrically hinged opening of the sphere. Having six axes and four dimensions, its parts may be rearranged to continuously unpeel the globe in all directions. Gnomonic projections through the surface facets of any of the regular polyhedrons will serve to provide a variety of sectional world surface maps. Striking an optimum between angular contraction and numbers and sizes of pieces, an icosahedron is the least distorted, for these projection purposes, of any of the regular solids. However, the spherical vertexes of the icosahedron's twenty triangles must be reduced from 72° to plane triangular vertexes of 60° , a reduction of twenty per cent, which percentage times the number of pieces, gives the total distortion. On the other hand, the Dymaxion's fourteen pieces accomplish translation with a distortion of only sixteen per cent, the Dymaxion's spherical triangles being only 70° and the vertexes of the square bearing the same percentage relationship between the spherical and the plane figure. The Dymaxion projection method of transferring spherical data to the plane surface is extremely simple. Because of its universal viewpoint, it need deal only with the surface of the sphere and the plane surface of the map. A lattice of four great circles is formed about the sphere, each intersecting the other in such a manner as to subdivide each circle into six symmetrical arcs of 6oo. This lattice provides fourteen spherical surface areas, eight of them triangular, six of them quadrangular. These spherical triangles and squares are equilateraL The surfaces of these 
Date  1944, April 